Our Work

Water Balance Reporting

We can help you accurately estimate each component of the water balance, its seasonality and uncertainty, and we can help with reconciliation and MLE (maximum likelihood estimation).

We have pioneered methodologies to estimate unmeasured consumption, refine measured consumption, design monitors, combine multiple sources of estimations, estimate uncertainty, and integrate smart metering.

Examples include:

Monitor Selection and Data Assimilation to improve PHC in Severn Trent
Improved Unmeasured PCC Monitor

We can help you with Non-Household (NHH) consumption modelling, segmentation, benchmarking, smart metering, MUR corrections, and monitor design.

Examples include:

Project Discovery: segmenting and benchmarking commercial consumption

We are at the forefront of estimating household night use to support your leakage calculation. We employ different approaches based on your needs, ranging from fast-logging, individual household monitors, and smart meters.

Examples include:

Anglian Water – Implementing fast-logging to quantify household night use

We can support you in estimating Non-household Night Use (NHHNU) through the use of non-linear models, monitors, and smart metering. Our advanced modelling will help you reduce biases and obtain robust results.


With our expertise, we specialise in discerning and explaining variations in seasonal water usage. Through thorough analysis, we identify patterns and
fluctuations, enabling accurate estimations, forecasting, and strategic water resource management.

We can provide comprehensive support to help you close the gap between top-down and bottom-up water balance analyses. Our advance statistical skills and knowledge of the water industry can support you in reviewing and quantifying the uncertainty associated with each component of your water balance, ensuring a thorough understanding of all variables involved. We are also equipped to investigate and resolve any discrepancies that may arise, offering you a clearer, more accurate view of your water balance.

Consumption Analysis

Through our exploratory work, we can study consumption trends, seasonality, peak demand, demographics, and we can help you with segmentation and monitor design.

We are leaders in analyising consumption trends, and we are able to discern statistically significant trends, identify influencing factors, model seasonality, explore future scenarios, and recommend policy and reporting changes based on our observations.

Examples include:

Collaborative water sector study on the impact of COVID on water use

Impact of shock events on Per Capita Consumption (PCC)

Seasonality is a key element of consumption variability and we can join our statistical skills, with a profound expertise in weather, climatic, and behavioural sciences, to realistically model the impact of extreme weather on water consumption.

Examples include:

Collaborative water sector study on the peak summer demand of 2018

Review of 2022 Drought Demand Management Measures

We combine our statistical, behavioural, and industry knowledge to analyse demographic differences within and between different geographic areas or customers’ cohorts. We use this knowledge to segment populations into better modellable strata, to improve understanding and sample design.

Examples include:

Project Discovery: segmenting and benchmarking commercial consumption

We can help you extract insight from househhold and non household smart meter data, whether you are interested in consumption behaviours, opportunities for water efficiency, target communications, proactively identify and measure leaks and internal wastage, or better understand how water is used.

Using our statistical and industry knowledge we design representative household, non-household, and DMA monitors. We can analyse and control for biases in the sample, and work with clients to specify the necessary monitor dimensions and structure.

Examples include:

Monitor Selection and Data Assimilation to improve PHC in Severn Trent

Improved Unmeasured PCC Monitor


Our AI solutions can help proactively detect burst and target leakage mains and customer supply leakage. We can support you with asset management and leakage routemaps.

We pioneered mains failure analytics, with the eVader network event detection, which is being implemented by i2O and integrated in their iNet system for network modelling, analytics, and control. eVader has also been used retrospectively on historic data to quantify network bursts where job data has been difficult to obtain.

Examples include:

Yorkshire Water – Implementing real-time network event detection

eDelta is our AI-based system to prioritise leakage intervention in DMAs. Learning from known repairs and other DMAs, eDelta is able to identify those leaks that are growing fastest and can be efficient and effective to repair. Thanks to a variety of metrics, we can tailor eDelta to match your needs.

Artesia have been privileged to have access to great volumes of network and smart meter data that has allowed us to build advanced models and algorithms for the quantification of CLS and the distinction between CSL and plumbing losses, thereby advancing the industry understanding of demand reduction, and targeting perhaps the most uncertain component in the water balance.

The hidden nature of water industry assets, continuous operation, and undetected failure make optimising management a real challenge. Artesia’s experience in modelling deterioration, of network leakage inference and targeting positions us to tailor an approach to your asset management problem which will produce lasting benefits.

Our wide range of experience helping multiple clients with leakage management programmes allows us to assist you in assessing the viability of leakage targets and devising strategies to meet them. Artesia use rigorous statistical methods to quantify uncertainty in projecting leakage under different maintenance regimes; forecasting is probably the most demanding area for WRMP figures, and we can offer authoritative support.

Water Resources Management Plans

We can provide household and non-household forecasts for your WRMP, perform weather modelling, estimate peak factors and uncertainty, explore scenarios, and design and implement options.

We specialise in Household Consumption Forecasts, employing micro-component and multiple linear regression models to accurately predict future water usage. We empower this by offering online apps with intuitive interfaces and powerful functionalities, facilitating informed decision-making for efficient water management.

Examples include:

Affinity Water – Forecasting Household Consumption for their 2019 WRMP

We provide accurate Non-Household Consumption Forecasts, employing socio-economic multiple linear regression models, advanced commercial segmentation, and considering realistic scenarios to accurately predict future water usage. We empower this by offering online apps with intuitive interfaces and powerful functionalities, facilitating informed decision-making for efficient water management.

We recognise weather as a significant driver of water consumption. By analysing historical data to discern yearly variations, we ensure to understand and identify differences between ‘normal’, ‘dry’ and ‘peak’ years, essential for effective water resource planning.

Interesting read:
A hot summer requires cool data science

We offer extensive support for Water Resources Management Plan (WRMP) planning. By evaluating a range of scenarios and associated uncertainties, we improve forecasts, optioneering, and headroom assessments to ensure effective and sustainable water management

We are experts in identifying the best solutions and options to support Water Resources Management Plan (WRMP) planning. Through comprehensive analysis and innovative approaches, we provide effective strategies to meet water demands and targets sustainably by mitigating any demand shortages.

Water Efficiency

We can support you in targeting water efficiency through traditional and mixed methods, modelling, designing water efficiency interventions and visits, and evaluating the outcomes.

Whether it’s supporting Water Resource Management (WRMP) planning or water efficiency strategy options,  we support many clients to formulate the best mix of water efficiency interventions based on their specific circumstances. Starting with an exhaustive list of options available to market, from product dispatch to tailored home visits, we can advise on what is effective and help our clients build cost effective interventions which maximise demand reduction.

Examples include:

Ofwat: developing scenarios for long-term reductions in household water use

We are experienced in providing advice on domestic and commercial water efficiency visits.  We have expertise in maximising customer participation, understanding customer behaviour, prioritising target audiences and how to evaluate water efficiency interventions.  All of these skills can assist in maximising the return on investment for our clients.

Interesting read:
Water Efficiency Home Visit Enhanced Framework

We have data science, social science, and industry expertise in water efficiency modelling; combining these skillsets gives us a unique perspective to better understand and predict water demand, its pattern, its behavioural drivers, and the most effective tailored interventions. This gives our clients the power to make informed decisions based on robust methodologies.

Examples include:

Project Discovery: segmenting and benchmarking commercial consumption

We are  developing techniques to help our clients better evaluate water efficiency interventions. Evidencing water demand reductions from any given intervention is notoriously challenging, and we can provide clients with helpful advice, including pre and post consumption analysis, use of control tests, representativeness of test/control groups, cost benefit assessments, and more advanced modelling techniquest to reliably identify consumption changes due to interventions.

Data Science and Statistics

We have broad data science, machine learning and statistical modelling, which we can apply in different areas, in the water sector and in other fields.

We offer complex analysis of sample representativeness and biases, as well as insight into segmenting populations of data. This expertise is used to design representative monitors, control for biases in extrapolation to populations, and investigate differences in behaviour between groups, among other projects.

Examples include:

Project Discovery: segmenting and benchmarking commercial consumption

Our data science expertise puts us at the forefront of machine learning and modelling in the water sector. With a wide range of experience and many areas of expertise, we build, train, and tune models and machine learning algorithms of all types. We offer to create, assess, and update models that can predict and explain a large number of scenarios.  

Interesting read:
Harnessing the Power of Natural Language Processing (NLP) in the Water Sector

We are experts in statistical uncertainty, and work with complex models and datasets to provide realistic estimations of errors. This allows us to propagate uncertainties throughout various predictive and descriptive models, and quantify the uncertainty and sensitivity of the outputs. This is used in our water balance reporting and consumption analysis, as well as other areas of our work.  

Our unique position as statistical, behavioural, and water industry experts allows us to find causality in data that may otherwise be hard to uncover. We employ rigorous statistical analysis and complex machine learning algorithms to unpick possible drivers of consumption, leakage, and other phenomena, and use our behavioural and industry expertise to translate these into actionable insights. 

We have a skilled data engineering team that can create, maintain, and modify data pipelines, perform extract-transform-load (ETL) processes, setup, maintain, and query relational and unstructured databases, and perform data integrity, data types, protection and security checks.

We offer online apps and dashboards tailored to any needs, providing intuitive platforms for streamlined user experiences. With a focus on user-centric design, we empower clients to optimise operations and make informed decisions with ease.

Social Science

Our unique expertise in social science and practice theory, supported by our quantitative analytical skills, can provide a completely new perspective in understanding customer behaviour.

At Artesia, we deliver an in-house social science offer, developed with the academic community, that applies various social science frameworks, employing social science evidence to support our analysis of water demand. This service can support with deepening understanding of customer water using behaviours, water efficiency programmes, and water demand analysis. 

Interesting read:
Artesia leads on applying social science research to water demand analysis

We offer comprehensive qualitative data services, that includes the design, delivery, processing, and analysis of qualitative data. In using this data, we can explore topics that cannot be easily understood from numbers to understand human experiences. This includes topics ranging from the everyday realities of how people use water, to the  experiences and opinions of water industry stakeholders. 

Our multi-disciplinary team are specialists in conducting mixed methods data analysis to support the needs of our clients. This provides outcome-based analysis that ensures triangulation is conducted, and that we take a whole view look at a problem, exploring the best data sources to address a particular issue. 

Our Demand Fingerprinting methodology combines AI and social sciences, with human intelligence to take a multidisciplinary approach to understand customer water using patterns and behaviours. Demand Fingerprinting produces a deeper exploration of the diversity in water use and can be used to create customer segmentation options for water efficiency and forecasting purposes. 

Smart Metering

We can accompany you in your smart meter journey, evaluating costs and benefits of your investment, maximising benefits for you and your customers, and providing unique insights.

Smart meters cost more to install and maintain, but the benefits permeate all areas of the business, from customer service to forecasting and leakage analysis. Understanding the cost benefit of smart metering requires a complete technical and business understanding of the water industry, and Artesia are repeatedly shown to be at the cutting edge of this area.

Interesting read:
Smart water metering – making the right decisions

Smart metering is a key element of the upcoming AMP. But the benefits that you can obtain from smart metering go beyond demand reduction. We are able to work with you to understand what additional applications are suitable for you and your smart metering rollout, whether you are interested in water efficiency, leakage reduction, or behavioural targeting.

Interesting read:
The benefits of water smart metering

One of the many applications of smart metering is to estimate water balance components and other key figures for reporting. While smart metering offers incredible opportunities to frequently monitor reporting variables, avoiding surprises and spotting trends proactively, we can help you with common pitfalls, like introduction of biases or over-simplified estimations. Thanks to our data assimilation approach, we can also help you to smoothly transition from your current reporting methodologies to smart metering, accounting for the ever-changing meterign landscape.

Interesting read:
Navigating Smart Metering roll-out and industry changes: Data Assimilation in the Water Industry

We can help you extract insight from househhold and non household smart meter data, whether you are interested in consumption behaviours, opportunities for water efficiency, target communications, proactively identify and measure leaks and internal wastage, or better understand how water is used.

Other Services

There is much more we can do for you! We can apply our advanced analytical skills to a broad range of water and environmental domains.

Our team is specialised in atmospheric and catchment hydrology, equipped with a comprehensive skill set essential for understanding and managing your water resources supply effectively. Coupled with our advanced statistical and modelling capabilities, we are adept at providing not only excellent forecasts but also at considering realistic future scenarios. Whether you’re planning for the short term or strategizing for long-term resource management, our expert staff is prepared to offer insights and solutions that anticipate and address your unique challenges.

We have extensive experience of working with water companies and regulators on all aspects of water resources planning and management. We have developed new approaches to demand allocation in water resource models, worked extensively on demand forecasts and delivered options appraisals for water company plans. We are also experienced in other key aspects of the planning process, from headroom and outage to environmental destination. We have been lead author on several plans, pulling parts of the plan together from a wide range of contributors.

Interesting read:
Two reports call for urgent water management action in the UK

The holistic approach needed for water management binds clean and wastewater inextricably together as two sides of the same coin, and Artesia expect to be making an increasing impression in the wastewater sector, bringing the bold and innovative approach to modelling and forecasting that has made Artesia industry leaders in the demand sector.

Drawing on expertise in water quality, biology, and environmental science, we implement comprehensive strategies for sustainable water management. By integrating interdisciplinary knowledge, we identify effective conservation and management strategies.

At Artesia, we harness the power of advanced geo-spatial and geo-statistical analysis to offer a broad spectrum of geo-spatial services, utilizing an array of satellite imagery and GIS data. Our expertise spans across various areas, from climatic analysis to distribution networks, from demographic data insight, to catchment hydrology, enabling us to provide tailored solutions to any of your geo-spatial problems.

Our diverse expertise in physics, climate science, hydrology, forecasting, weather analysis, and statistics empowers us to deliver exceptional services in the realm of climatic data analysis. We are proficient in extracting meaningful insights, performing advanced modelling and forecasting, and evaluating the impact on water demand and resources.