Working in the area of water efficiency, water resources management, leakage and demand management supported by expert statistical analysis and mathematical modelling on water network studies.

Water Resource Planning

Understanding the impacts of drought restrictions

Artesia, working with Ricardo-AEA and Ipsos MORI, were commissioned by UKWIR to improve the understanding of drought restrictions.  Artesia’s role was investigate evidence for the impacts on domestic hosepipe use during the restrictions.  Domestic consumption data from 3 water companies was collected and analysed.  The 15-minute individual property flow data from about 4000 properties going back over 6 years was analysed for incidences of high flows, indicative of hosepipe use.  The analysis presented the impacts of the temporary use ban on domestic hosepipe / external water use events.  Client: UKWIR.

Technical author for WRSE: Phase 3

The Water Resources in the South East (WRSE) group is exploring opportunities for existing and new water resources to be shared in the most efficient and effective way and to find the best solutions which balances the impact on customers, security of supply and the environment.  This phase of the project included receiving data from the model outputs (produced by Halcrow), and interpreting the data, developing the findings and conclusions from the project and presenting these in a format that was suitable for both technical and non-technical readers.  Client: Environment Agency and WRSE group.

Demand management options for WRMP

The role was to provide a technical lead for the preparation of the constrained water demand management options from an unconstrained list.  For each option costs, yields, risks and uncertainties were developed and formatted ready for modelling.  Client: Jacobs.

Improvements to key water balance components

The project took a fresh look at a number of leakage related water balance components and identified where the components could be improved using data already held by the water company. These improvements were then included in the June Return for 2011.  The project is now investigating how these components can be improved further through the improved collection and analysis of data.

Water company drought order independent review

This was an independent review into the drought management actions carried out by a water company to assess the extent to which the Company’s actions were in accordance with its drought plan.  The work was carried out in collaboration with AMEC.  Artesia’s specific remit was to review the leakage strategy, management and actions.
Water and Stones

Stochastic water resources scoping and pilot study

Project to identify and evaluate available probabilistic methods, for water resources planning, based on client needs to analyse surface and groundwater sources and incorporate climate change uncertainty.  Client: South East Water

Water balance strategy

The water balance is an important tool for water companies to quantify and report leakage and consumption figures to regulators, and determine whether targets and delivery incentives have been met.  This project reviewed the company’s water balance to identify areas of risk, and then developed a strategy to reduce the uncertainty in the water balance to ensure it was fit for purpose.  Client: Dŵr Cymru Welsh Water.

Water Conservation

Cost benefit of Baseline Water Efficiency Activities

The project included a literature review and structured interviews with water companies to gather evidence on the baseline water efficiency activities carried out and resulting water savings.  A methodology will then be developed to assign credible estimates of water savings based on the range of available evidence.  This will allow a quantifiable assessment of the water efficiency activities currently undertaken by the industry to be presented to Ofwat for trading against the water efficiency targets.  The output was a report detailing a methodology for estimating water savings with uncertainties.
Water Bubbles

Cost Benefit Assessment of Water and Energy Efficiency Retrofitting Measures

This project provided an evidence-based assessment on the costs and benefits of retrofitting households with combined water and energy efficiency measures.  Artesia were part of a team led by Amec (Entec) and including the Energy Saving Trust.  The latest evidence on water savings and energy savings from water conservation measures was assembled and used to produce a number of retrofitting scenarios, and then the costs and benefits (including carbon and energy) of the scenarios were assessed and reported.

Customer behaviour and demand forecasting

A research project to review how customer behaviour segmentation could be used to improve forecasting of household consumption and the effective targeting of water efficiency programmes.  This included a review of previous studies, alternative typologies, the development of best practice in customer surveys, micro-component logging and analysis. Client: UK Water Industry Research Limited.

Analysis of water efficiency trials data

The study provides an analysis of the data derived from ESW’s water efficiency trials in order to support ESW’s June Return submission for 2011 and further recommendations for the development of future water efficiency trials. The work is ongoing and initially involved scrutinising in detail the data contained within in each trial study and then investigate the potential to extract further added value by bringing the four sets of data together.  The work to date has already produced new evidence on the effectiveness of specific water saving products and the manner of their installation and use.

Developing the Green Zone Project and Water Efficiency Programme for West Cumbria

The main objective of the Green Zone Project water efficiency programme is to achieve water savings of 0.32Ml/d by 2014/15. Artesia provided a Green Zone project plan for conducting the research activities, the interventions required to achieve the targeted water savings, the monitoring requirements and a rationale for the implementation plan to achieve the required savings.
Client: United Utilities

Water efficiency statistical analysis

This project updated the evidence base for water efficiency and the effects of metering on household consumption.  The study analysed 25 projects in total and used meta-analysis to demonstrate that water conservation projects deliver statistically significant reductions in household water use. Client: Water industry collaborative fund

Promoting private sector engagement in water stewardship

Project to review the effect of agricultural supply chains on freshwater quality; provide a rationale for taking action to reduce the environmental impacts of businesses operations and supply chains; and present practical examples and recommendations for how private sector companies can implement a water stewardship approach in the UK and EU.  The project is part of the three-year WaterLIFE project, funded by the EU Life+ programme, which aims to deliver the Water Framework Directive through collaborative action between civil society and the private sector.  Client: WWF-UK

Analysis of water efficiency trials data

The study provides an analysis of the data derived from Essex and Suffolk Water’s water efficiency trials in order to support ESW’s June Return submission for 2011 and further recommendations for the development of future water efficiency trials.  The work is ongoing and initially involved scrutinising in detail the data contained within in each trial study and extracting further added value by bringing the four sets of data together.  The work to date has already produced new evidence on the effectiveness of specific water saving products and the manner of their installation and use.

Leakage Management

Leakage and Demand Management Framework

Services supplied include a range of demand management analysis work streams such as: Water balance strategy. This project reviewed the company’s water balance to identify areas of risk, and then developed a strategy to reduce the uncertainty in the water balance to ensure it was fit for purpose; Household Night Use dynamic demand monitoring: weekly and monthly reporting of data analysis; Data Gap filling: to refine and validate the mean substitution gap filling approach developed in Leakage Allowance Strategy AMP6 2015-2016; Meter Under Registration for households; NRR: to convert 15 min flow time series to a daily minimum leakage time series using volatility methodology and to determine “drops” in leakage for each repair event and assign leak type; Development of Pressure Management Strategy; Development of a Leak Work Repair Optimisation; Provision of analysis support in DCWW Smart metering trials: Cost-benefit modelling methodology and literature review for smart metering; nest stage will be to implement trials and support analysis.
Client: Dwr Cymru Welsh Water
Flowing Tap

Fast logging for the improved estimation of leakage

An important part of quantifying leakage using DMAs (the bottom-up method) is removing the legitimate night use from the minimum night flow.  This project is developing best practice for ‘fast logging’ techniques in DMAs or small areas to separate intermittent flows from continuous flows in order to estimate the leakage and night use components.  The outputs from the project provide technical detail behind the existing and developing ‘fast log’ approaches, define the requirements to allow a robust estimate of the intermittent night use in areas of different sizes, and identify any additional adjustments are required to ensure a robust household night use value can be reported for the company. Client: UK Water Industry Research Limited.

Methodology Development for SWW Unmeasured Domestic Consumption

The work reviewing methodologies for the determination of un-measured domestic consumption of water.
Client: South West Water

Fast logging improvements

Artesia has been implementing a fast logging system for measuring night use in over 220 DMAs within Affinity Water.  The fast logging method measures rapid changes in the DMA consumption during the night.  Artesia has been making improvements to the process by carrying out specific high frequency logging to assess the amount of overlapping intermittent use being detected by the fast logging process.  The results will allow Affinity Water to ensure that the reported night use figure derived form fast logging is an accurate estimate.  Client: Affinity Water.

Review of leakage on Jersey

Jersey Water is in the process of metering all their domestic customers, and in parallel with this, setting up district metered areas. The purpose of the review was to audit their leakage levels on the company’ network and the customers’ pipes, to investigate the impact that the metering programme has had on leakage.  The review also benchmarked their leakage and burst performance against companies in England and Wales.

Improved household night use allowances

This research project is investigating methods to improve leakage calculations through varying the night use adjustment in response to geographical and seasonal factors.

Fast Logging analysis for household night use monitoring

The provision the results of monthly analysis of data collected from the fast logging monitor for measuring household night use (HHNU) and the monitor will be used to derive a HHNU value for leakage reporting in the water balance, and help increase operational efficiency by providing near real time trends of HHNU.
Client: Portsmouth Water

Volatility Analysis: Domestic Night Use

The estimation of Domestic NU (DNU) has a direct bearing on the interpretation of District Metering Area Minimum night flows and regulatory reporting of leakage levels. The objective of this work was to calculate daily leakage values for each DMA using volatility analysis and to uncover the drivers of demand using multivariate statistics.
Client: South West Water
Hands

Audit of a new night use monitor

The client had implemented a new night use monitor that used a fast logging technique applied to small areas to estimate night use values for the company.  The project audited the new monitor against best practice approaches and other systems currently in use.  Client: Severn Trent Water.

Assessment of low flow components of night use and the water balance

The project is investigating the effect of unmeasured and under registered low flows on night-use allowances in leakage calculations, and also on estimates of household per-capita consumption (pcc).

Technical support for micro-component demand forecasting for WRMP

Provision of specialist micro-component expertise and support to model the demand forecast for households as part of WMRP14. The project investigated the effect of unmeasured and under registered low flows on night-use allowances in leakage calculations, and also on estimates of household per-capita consumption (pcc).
Client: Affinity Water

Beyond 2020

A study to identify and carry out an initial evaluation of potential ways of reducing leakage, beyond what is considered possible by the end of AMP6, in 2020.  The project identified over 100 possible leakage options based on client workshops, literature reviews, patent searches and suppliers’ proposals.  This long list was then screened using criteria developed with the client, to result in a shortlist of around 35 options for more detailed investigation.  Client: Wessex Water

Investigating non-household night use

The client’s current commercial night use estimate is based on a model developed in 2008/09.  Over the last 6 years there has been a significant change in the economy, which is likely to have had an impact on the nature of water use on business properties. Artesia was asked to review the client’s commercial night use estimation process against the UKWIR best practice methodology.  Data from the client’s billing system and 1000 properties’ logged data collected over the past 2 years was collated and analysed using the client’s current method, and compared with the UKWIR methods, and recommendations made to improve the robustness of the client’s existing logging and analysis process.  Client: Affinity Water.

Winter Leakage Review of Key Leakage Factors Associated with Extreme Weather Events

The project examined historical data and developed a preliminary definition for an extreme winter leakage event(s) and normal winter profiles, based on the last 7 years weather and leakage data.  The project went on to quantify the consequences of the last two severe winters in terms of leakage, repairs, leakage activity and costs.

Smart Metering and Metering

Development of water industry strategy on implementation of smart metering

The roll out of energy smart meters potentially delivers opportunities around the case for smart forms of metering in the water sector, and whether the wider functions within the water industry might be able to realise any benefits. This UKWIR project took a wide water industry view, including customer service perspectives, leakage management, water resources management, asset management and operations.  The report identified that most of the previous work in this area had focussed on the technology and the costs, but little had been done to understand the customers’ wants and desires relating to smart water metering. A number of research priorities were identified in the areas of customer research, network operations, costs and benefits, technology and the supply chain

Review of Compulsory Metering Programme

Investigating the effect of South East Water’s compulsory metering programme on demand.  The project reviewed and assessed the water savings, and included a customer survey to provide a benchmark of customer attitudes to the metering programme in the first year after their meter has been installed. Artesia is working closely with DJS – a market research company – on this project.  Client: South East Water.

Cost benefit modelling for smart metering options

Artesia was commissioned by Arqiva provide technical support for developing cost benefit analyses based on the UKWIR smart metering cost benefit best practice. Artesia developed the UKWIR CBA model for Arqiva’s use, and carried out a range of cost benefit scenarios for different companies and regions in the UK.  These were used to support Arqiva’s client meetings and provide data for their White Paper.  Client: Arqiva.

Meter under registration study

The client required the development of a tool to review meter under registration for revenue meters.  The project analysed water consumption profiles, meter stocks, error profiles and developed an updated meter under registration figure for reporting and operational use. The project was carried out in conjunction with GL.
Sea and Sunset

Water Demand Forecasting

Future estimation of unmeasured household consumption

A project to develop best practice that will enable water companies to plan how best to adapt their current methods for estimating unmeasured household consumption as meter penetration increases.  The project includes a comprehensive review of the current methods being used that may be useful as the number of remaining unmeasured households drops and the development of suitable methods for the estimation of unmeasured household consumption in the future.  The output describes best practice and presents reducing cost solution to continuing the measurement and analysis process for unmeasured household consumption as the influence of the unmeasured households diminishes in relation to the water balance calculation. Client: UK Water Industry Research Limited.

Customer behaviour and demand forecasting

A research project to review how customer behaviour segmentation could be used to improve forecasting of household consumption and the effective targeting of water efficiency programmes.  This included a review of previous studies, alternative typologies, the development of best practice in customer surveys, micro-component logging and analysis. Client: UK Water Industry Research Limited.

Demand forecasting

A research project to determine the most appropriate household demand forecasting methods for water companies to use in their future water resource plans.  This project includes a review of alternative methods to the current micro-component approach; an assessment of these methods; and the development of a manual which allows water companies to select the most appropriate methods for their needs and obligations, together with examples of how to undertake the demand forecast.  This UKWIR project is being supported by the Environment Agency, so the outputs must be appropriate for their regulatory requirements.Client: UK Water Industry Research Limited.
Water Bottle

Review of water demand forecasting methodologies

Thames Water commissioned Artesia Consulting to undertake a review of demand forecasting methodologies.  The aim of this work was to allow Thames Water to better understand potential options for forecasting this important part of the water resources management plan and to identify viable alternatives to the current micro-component method.  A literature review was carried out which covered the principal demand forecasting methods: micro-component modelling; econometric modelling; statistical analyses; and micro-simulation; including agent-based modelling.  The two main approaches for dealing with uncertainty – scenario analysis and stochastic modelling (e.g. using Monte Carlo simulation) were also reviewed. Recommendations were made to assist the client in developing their demand forecasting approach for the next WRMP.  Client: Thames Water.

Technical support for micro-component demand forecasting for WRMP

This project provided the client with specialist micro-component expertise and support to model the demand forecast for households as part of WMRP14.  This included overseeing the collection of data from households through a water use questionnaire, collating evidence on other micro-components of water use, supporting the modelling process and providing a peer review and audit role for the final outputs.